On 16 October 2019 Gabriela Ramos, OECD Chief of Staff and Sherpa and Martin Verwey, Director General of the European Commission’s Structural Reform Support Service (SRSS), signed a document solidifying the collaboration between the OECD and SRSS at the OECD Headquarters in Paris, France.
Ambassador Didier Lenoir, Director General
Maarten Verwey, Ambassadors, Directors, Colleagues,
delighted to welcome you at this ceremony to seal in and celebrate our collaboration
with the European Commission’s Structural Reform Support Service
me in particular thank Maarten Verwey, the Director General of the SRSS and his
team, Daniele Dotto, Sébastien Renaud and Ana Lope-Garcia for being with us
today. We have certainly come a long way together since we met in Brussels at
the end of last year to structure this cooperation. Today, we are very happy to
officially join forces with the SRSS and support the European efforts to help
advance a strong agenda on structural reforms.
This is a timely gathering as we witness the
launch of the new Presidency of the European Commission. On that note let me
mention that we are particularly proud to see the EU lead the way be electing a
woman for President for the very first time, and a woman to govern the European
Central Bank. The EU is walking the talk on gender equality!
The goals of the new European Commission
resonate well with OECD objectives; that is to ensure that our growth models
deliver for people, and for the planet. Combating climate change, achieving
social justice, and dealing with the digital transformation, are objectives
that bring us together.
It is my pleasure to recall that the OECD has
been collaborating closely with the European Union since 1960. Our co-operation
with the SRSS is in fact an extension of this collaboration and the extension
of this work could not come at a better time. Joining our efforts in this way
makes us stronger in a particularly complex moment. As highlighted in the
OECD’s Interim Economic Outlook released in September, we must start investing more
in structural reforms if we are to prevent a deeper slowdown of global growth. It is clear that, beyond macroeconomic
objectives, the plan for further growth requires a strong component of
structural reforms. This is also the main lesson from the financial crisis that
led to the European Semester, and the OECD has been an active partner since the
very beginning of the crisis, notably by working closely to support Greece. It
is by working on structural reforms, which are the DNA of the OECD, that we can
lay the foundations for more productive, innovative, inclusive and dynamic
We are grateful for the excellent
opportunity, provided by the SRSS, to have greater policy impact and to ensure
more effectiveness in advancing structural reforms directly with governments on
the ground. I am convinced that this co-operation is a win-win for both the EU
and the OECD. It takes advantage of the support the EU has provided the OECD
with for so many years, in advancing important policy agendas, most notably
through its generous provision of Voluntary Contributions. This partnership
leverages the investment made by the EU in the OECD until now, which should
ensure a high rate of return for our European Members!
It is with great pleasure that I announce
that the grant agreement we are sealing in today comprises 34 projects in 18 EU
countries! These projects will lead to improved labour markets, education
systems, innovation, governance, environmental protection and you name it. To
mention only a few of these ambitious projects, we will for example be
supporting the Czech authorities with the preparation of a new national
circular economy strategic framework, developing a new National Basic Skill
Strategy in the Netherlands and improving the provision of labour market
services in Estonia and Slovenia.
I am delighted to tell you that we have
received much positive feedback on this co-operation, both from our partners in
national administrations and from our counterparts at the SRSS. This feedback
confirms the quality and relevance of OECD support to delivering on government reform
Let me take this opportunity to thank our
Ambassadors for their positive reception of this co-operation. Each project
contributes to advancing national reform programmes by capitalizing on the
cutting-edge skills and human capital developed in this house. The OECD is
contributing with the best of our talent, as represented also by our experts
present here today. Therefore, I extend my gratitude to Directors, counsellors,
project managers, experts and corporate services staff for contributing to the
success of this initiative.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
In a geopolitical environment where we are
witnessing an ever-weakening commitment to multilateralism, collective efforts such
as those fostered by the OECD-SRSS partnership are our best response. I believe
that by delivering on this co-operation, we can prove that even the most
important national priority can benefit immensely from international
cooperation. Together we must aim to ensure multilateralism’s survival and
success and I can assure you that the OECD, as a results oriented do-tank,
remains committed to these goals!
Finally, we support and encourage the ambitions of the new European Commission to
further reinforce its reform support programme and we will do our best to
continue delivering as a constructive, trustful and engaging partner.
Dear Maarten, SRSS colleagues and Ambassadors
please count on us, count on the OECD!
I would like
to begin by thanking you for joining us for the OECD State-Owned Enterprises
Anti-Corruption day. The Recommendation of the Council on Guidelines on
Anti-Corruption and Integrity in State-Owned Enterprises (or ‘ACI Guidelines’
as we call them) was adopted by Ministers in May. We are here to advance the
all-important process of ensuring successful implementation.
Now is when
the work really begins, because as our Secretary-General likes to say,
agreements make the headlines, but implementation is what changes people’s lives.
SOEs are critical for our
economies and societies – they are the main channel for states to exercise
their roles as economic actors, and in many instances they help deliver
essential services to the public.
They are often concentrated in sectors of strategic
importance for government and society, like energy, water and transport.
account for over a fifth of the world’s largest companies and many are increasingly being operated like private
firms. Their role as global competitors is growing as the boundaries of markets
extend beyond geographic borders.
the presence of SOEs in the global marketplace has also been marked by certain
high-profile scandals and some instances of corruption. As we heard earlier today,
the majority of bribes promised or given to foreign public officials between
1999 and 2014 were destined for SOE officials.
But it’s not
only an issue of cross-border activity. The challenge is also at the regional,
national and local levels.
report by Transparency International shows that almost a fifth of citizens in
18 Latin American counties had to pay a bribe to utility services in the last
year (second only to the police force).
And we know that SOEs are big players in
mismanagement, abuse or corruption occurs in SOEs, the costs to society and to trust
in both the private and public sectors can be great. We have seen how some SOE-related scandals can
lead to democratic unrest and slides in the corruption perceptions’ index.
the latest stock-take in years of exploration on what makes SOEs susceptible to
corruption and how policy makers can act to raise their integrity.
will help address this challenge. For example, to help insulate SOEs from undue
influence in their operations, the Guidelines recommend safeguards for the autonomy
of boards and merit-based appointment of SOE decision-makers (including CEOs).
To avoid impunity of SOEs and bring accountability, the Guidelines expect SOEs
to have annual external audits and that auditors report on any irregularities.
an ethical imperative and a key driver of trust, but it is also an economic case,
since integrity is vital to ensure high performing productivity and returns on
which complement the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned
Enterprises, are rooted in the idea that no state owner or company can fully
succeed in improving SOE integrity by ‘going it alone’. A broad range of actors
need to be on board, and their incentives aligned.
This is why
the ACI Guidelines were developed by three Working Parties: the Working Party
on State Ownership and Privatisation Practices in collaboration with the
Working Group on Bribery in International Business Transactions and the Working
Party of Senior Public Integrity Officials.
All three are
represented here today, in addition to a broad range of participants from
private firms, from governments, including OECD national delegations, from
academia, from civil society, and of course from TUAC and BIAC.
This meeting is
all about ‘kicking-off’ the implementation process, and you have brought very
good insights and examples to nourish the discussion and chart the path forward:
We have heard this morning directly from various branches
of government on how owners can and should lead by example on integrity;
We have shared our challenges, our best practices
and reforms on getting ownership and governance arrangements right;
We have learnt from both private firms and SOEs which
company-internal structures and mechanisms best promote integrity and prevent
We have explored how accountability is maintained
and what to do if things go wrong;
We have taken a deep dive into the particular
challenges of high-risk areas like the extractives sector; and;
Last but not least, we have gathered new partners to help put into
practice all of what we have shared, with exciting new initiatives like the
piloting of an expert secondment programme: Compliance Without Borders [the
idea was born in the B20].
important thing is that we continue to advance together in the collaborative
and multilateral spirit in which the Guidelines were conceived.
As the OECD’s
Sherpa to the G20, I am proud that the ACI Guidelines were elaborated from a
G20 consensus. Under last year’s Argentinian Presidency, the G20
Anti-Corruption Working Group adopted a set of High-Level Principles on
Preventing Corruption and Ensuring Integrity in State-Owned Enterprises, to
which the OECD was a key contributor.
We are there
to work together with states to identify quick wins but also to accompany you for
the long road ahead. We invite you to
tap into our regional networks where governments identify common challenges and
good practices in promoting corporate governance and integrity in the companies
Today was an
important gathering to take stock and strengthen implementation capacity, but we
will continue providing opportunities to exchange on these important topics.
I ask you to
pencil in the next key data – the OECD’s Global Anti-Corruption and Integrity
Forum on 25-26 March. The subject is “Public, private and beyond”, which is the
perfect platform to take this work forward.
Your presence here
demonstrates that we have the commitments necessary to drive progress. And
thanks to today’s meeting, we have a host of good practices and consultation
partners that can help feed into an accompanying ‘Implementation Guide’ planned
So let’s keep
up the momentum and the commitment as together we embark on the implementation
phase of this critical tool for integrity and for the public good.
Keynote delivered at the OECD Global Parliamentary Network meeting on 10 October 2019 in Paris, France, convening over 100 MPs and parliamentary officials from 34 countries. Keynote opened the session on “Inclusive Growth and Sustainable Development: Making progress towards achieving the SDGs.”
Parliamentarians, Ladies and Gentlemen,
The SDGs are the most ambitious,
challenging and complex policy agenda that the global community has ever
undertaken. We have made some pregress, but felivering on the central promise
of the 2030 Agenda “to leave no one behind” means that at least 730 million
people, or 10% of the global population, still need to be lifted out of extreme
poverty by 2030.
Today, not only do we face a daunting
task, but we are running out of time to finish the job. With little over 10
years to go, progress is uneven across both targets and countries.
Globally, we are not on track. The number
of hungry people in the world is back up to where it was nearly a decade ago,
and in fact world hunger has risen for the third year in a row.[i] Millions of children are
missing out on education, especially girls. It is estimated that 16% of
students of lower secondary school age do not attend school, and for girls it’s
20% – 1 in 5![ii]
environment, the outcomes are alarming. After a three-year plateau from 2014 to 2016,
energy-related carbon dioxide emissions are rising again, reaching
unprecedented levels in 2018. In
just fifty years, we have destroyed one tenth of the world’s terrestrial
biodiversity and one third of freshwater biodiversity. We are on course to lose
another 10% of terrestrial species by 2050.[iii]
The most recent
edition of the OECD’s report ‘Measuring
the Distance to SDG Targets’, shows that OECD member countries need to ramp
up their efforts. More than half of our members have made
little or no progress towards targets relating to Eradicating Poverty, Ensuring
Food, Education, Reducing Inequalities and on strengthening Institutions. And
when it comes to Goal 8 on ‘Promoting Sustained, Inclusive and Sustainable
Economic Growth, Full and Productive Employment and Decent Work for All’, a
third of OECD countries is actually moving away from the SDG targets.[iv]
Inequalities in many OECD countries are actually rising. The richest 10%
in the OECD used to earn seven times more on average than the poorest 10%
thirty years ago – this number is now 9 and a half times. The figures for
wealth are even more striking, with the top 10% accounting for about one half
of the total wealth in OECD countries.
As the OECD’s work on inclusive growth shows, this is not only about
income and wealth, but also about opportunities and outcomes. People at the
bottom accumulate disadvantages all throughout their lifetime, leading to
shorter, less healthy, less fulfilling lives which they are not empowered to
The OECD’s Broken
Social Elevator report shows that it would take a child born into a
low-income family around 5 generations – or up to 150 years – to reach the
average level of income. This is not social mobility, the machine is totally
broken, and it happened on our watch.
With the emergence of new technologies and automation, the lowest paid
and the least educated will be hit the hardest, both in terms of the
displacement and the outdated social protections. So this situation is only
going to get worse, and the inclusive growth agenda becomes even more urgent.
We are already seeing the anger from people, which is manifesting itself
in terms of dangerous political outcomes, and you do not need me to tell you
because you as parliamentarians are on the frontline.
We need to change our approaches, and put people at the centre. To
support countries the OECD has developed a wide range of tools, including the
Framework for Policy Action on Inclusive Growth, which provides a dashboard of indicators and tailored
recommendations to invest in people, regions and businesses that are lagging
We are also putting inclusion at
the core of our work to tackle climate change, as there are so many synergies,
from public health to quality jobs that will be essential for ensuring a just
and inclusive transition to the low-carbon economy, as we set out in the report
we launched at the United Nations General Assembly just two weeks ago.
When thinking about inequalities, including with relation to new
technologies, as well as the well-being lens, we also have to keep the gender
lens sharply in focus, in line with the OECD’s Gender Strategy. This is a
subject very close to my own heart and, despite some progress, the situation is
Women and girls are particularly exposed to poverty
and being victims of inequality: 330 million women and girls live on less than
2 dollars a day globally, which is 4.4 million more than men. We still have
hundreds of millions of girls not in school and also facing violence and
Tackling these barriers and injustices, while also
supporting women to fulfil their full potential is really one of the most
important tools to advance all the SDGs. And there are win-win policies which
are core for the OECD’s Gender Strategy, like investing in childcare and
education, particularly between the ages of 0-3, and promoting dual parental
leave, which can also help tackle harmful gender stereotypes.
The key message I want to leave you with is that we
have to take this cross-cutting and interconnected approach to every single one
of the SDGs. As policymakers, this is where your power to support the SDG
agenda really lies, and the OECD stands ready to work with all of your
The OECD’s SDG
Action Plan supports our Members, partners, and the international community on
making progress on the 2030 Agenda, both by measuring the distance to the SDGs
and by bringing the policy tools to catch up. One of the pillars of the action
plan is to upgrade the OECD’s support for integrated planning and policymaking
at the country level and provide a space to share experiences on governing for
In this way, we
have supported Slovenia and the Slovak Republic in the development of their
whole-of-government national strategies for SDG implementation. In addition, we
are currently working with Malta on their SDG-aligned National Development
It is clear that the institutions underpinning public
administrations need to be more responsive to today’s challenges, and as
parliamentarians, this is in part your responsibility.
The OECD is ready to help. Our recent report ‘Governance as an Accelerator of the SDGs’
shows a number of shortcomings in current governance practices. We see, for
example, that the SDGs are not yet integrated in core governance mechanisms,
such as budget and public procurement systems. Indeed, while the SDGs are often
integrated in national strategies, less than half of OECD countries specifically include SDG reporting in their
We know from gender budgeting and from green budgeting
how powerful this approach can be.
It is also clear that we need to strengthen the
coordination between different levels of government. Close to two-thirds of the
targets underlying the 17 SDGs – at least 100 out of 169 – will not be reached
without engaging local and regional governments. Cities and regions have a
crucial role to play, and the OECD’s Programme on promoting a Territorial Approach to the SDGs can
help align national, regional and local initiatives.
Only two weeks ago we made an important step forward
by launching in the margins of the United Nations General Assembly in New York
the Global Hub on the Governance for the SDGs. This will provide a useful
resource on planning, budget, procurement, monitoring and evaluation processes,
to better align priorities and to enhance transparency and accountability for
the SDGs. In short, improving governance for the SDGs will, we hope, rapidly
And this must, of
course, come hand in hand with efforts to improve financing for the SDGs. The
annual funding gap still stands at a staggering 2.5
trillion US dollars. ODA will account for just a small proportion of this,
which is why the OECD is leading the way with tax transparency measures like
the BEPS initiative, and targeted programmes like Tax Inspectors Without
The private sector also has its
part to play in this effort, not just by paying tax (though that’s a good
start), but also through new business models and tools like Blended Finance and
The good news is that many
companies have realised that their responsibility lies beyond their shareholder
profits alone, and that they have a role to play in improving society.
Working with the French
Presidency of the G7, the OECD has created the Business for Inclusive Growth
Platform that brings together 34 companies
with more than 3 million employees worldwide and global revenues topping
They have pledged to take concrete actions to deliver on the Sustainable
Development Goals, particularly goals 1 (no poverty), 5 (gender equality), 8
(decent work and economic growth), and 10 (reduced inequalities). The OECD is
helping the companies launch and develop projects, and we will be monitoring
their results closely and publicly every three years.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
I have enjoyed sharing with you
some examples of how the OECD can support your countries to deliver on the SDGs
and on the inclusive egrowth agenda.
However, this Network is also about
you, and sharing your diverse experiences, so I very much look forward to hearing
your perspectives and learning from you. Thank you.
Session 2: Civil Society and Protest in the Digital Age
DOC Leaders Club Meeting on 11 October 2019 in Rhodes, Greece, chaired by Vladimir Yakunin, Chairman of the Supervisory Board, DOC Research Institute, featured two discussions surrounding the theme of “Role of Civil Society: Ascending or Descending?” Gabriela Ramos intervened in the second session entitled “Civil Society and Protest in the Digital Age.”
people-centered policies for sustainable development and inclusive growth is
impossible without the input of civil society.
in the last decade we have observed a global shrinking of civic space. In too many
countries, the freedom of citizens to protest, mobilise, and speak out is being
contested and restricted.
from 2018 tells us that more than 3 billion people live in countries where
civic space is repressed or closed. Last year the CIVICUS Monitor reported 109
countries having closed, repressed or obstructed civic space.
increasing government pressures and surveillance are not the only factors
changing the landscape of civil society action.
digital age has transformed how governments, citizens, and civil society
interact and how protesters voice their discontent.
Connectivity, rapid information exchange
and social media offer new ways for civil society coalitions to form beyond
national borders and for citizens to stay informed, engage more actively in the
policy-making process, and organize themselves to start protest movements – we
saw this with the #MeToo movement, and the use by the yellow vest movement of
is some evidence that this could be contributing to increased political
engagement. According to The Economist Intelligence Democracy Index 2018,
political participation is the only category in the Index to register an
improvement in comparison to previous years.
could indicate that while citizens and civil society are disillusioned with
formal political institutions, protest movements and other forms of political
participation are growing.
some of these gains are being made by populist and even extremist parties, who
exploit new digital possibilities to amplify their reach and spread propaganda.
However, these channels can also be used for good – like raising awareness
around climate change and mobilizing the kids strike.
in some cases, online platforms and the growing capabilities of AI and big data
analytics are being misused to propagate, tailor, and target misinformation.
This has diverse aims, but they range from dividing societies, influencing opinions
and election outcomes, securing economic gains, and recruiting intelligence sources.
confirmation bias combined with the algorithms curated by platforms to more
accurately tailor content and advertising to their users, form echo chambers
that can polarize political opinions and often lead to misinformation.
lack of regulation surrounding data privacy, contributes to its misuse as a
surveillance tool. According to the NGO Access Now, governments forced over 196
internet shutdowns in 2018.
the face of the digital transformation, we must mobilize digital technology to
counter the threats to civic space,
while minimizing the risk that it undermines the integrity of civil society
building on its work on Open Government and the recently adopted Recommendation
of the Council on Open Government, the OECD has established its Observatory for
Civic Space, with support from the Ford Foundation.
aims to monitor the legal, institutional and policy frameworks in which civil
society organisations operate; promote and protect civic space; and act as a platform
for dialogue between key civil society actors.
Observatory will conduct a Global Survey of Civic Space, to provide a strong
evidence base and data on the status of civic space and civic engagement. This
initiative aims to guide and inform policy-making surrounding civil society as
it continues to face increasing pressures and attempt to capitalize on the
potential of the digital transformation.
Opening Plenary: 30 Years After the Fall of the Berlin Wall: In search of a roadmap and a compass
Remarks given on the Opening Plenary of the Dialogue of Civilisations on October 11 in Rhodes, Greece. Gabriela Ramos intervened alongside Martin Schulz, former President of the European Parliament; Vyachslav Nikonov, political analyst; Dr. Huiyao Wang, Founder and President of the Center for China and Globalization; Shada Islam, Director for Europe & Geopolitics at Friends of Europe; Alphons Kannantham, Member of the Indian Parliament and former Union Minister.
In this beautiful island, the
challenges and divisions fragmenting our world seem very far away.
And yet, we are reminded
everywhere here of the reality that civilisations collapse (NAEC conference).
The reality is that politically, economically, environmentally, the systems that govern our lives are under enormous strain.
Deglobalisation is bringing huge costs
fall of the Berlin Wall was an event that signalled the dawn of global
1991 and 2017 global trade volume quadrupled. The growth of global exports in
business services and financial services grew by five times, and manufacturing
of global value chains: the OECD has estimated that 40% of jobs in the OECD
area are dependent on foreign trade. Almost 5 million jobs in the US are
dependent on trade with Mexico.
of the content of US imports of goods from Mexico consists of US value added
has been key in mapping this w/TiVA.
we are seeing now is an attempted deglobalising and protectionist trends.
to OECD Economic Outlook global growth will slow to 2.9% in 2019 and 3% in
2020: weakest annual growth rates since the crisis.
Labour productivity growth has not risen above 1% since the crisis.
tensions and protectionist policies are bringing terrible consequences:
Trade growth has
collapsed below 1%.
restrictions in G20 countries in 2nd half of 2018 affected almost 500 billion
US dollars of imported products.
In G20 countries
aggregate investment growth has dropped from 5% at the start of 2018 to only 1%
in the first half of 2019.
production has fallen below 2%. In Germany it has dropped almost 10 percentage
points to around -5% in 2019!
estimates that the impact of US-China trade restrictions could lower global GDP
by 0.7 percentage point per year in the first two years of the shock and global
trade growth by close to 1½ per cent per year, with the effects felt all over
Economic trends combined with inequalities are eroding trust and
the last 30 years, despite deepening global integration, inequality has risen
in many countries, meaning the benefits of global growth have not been shared
The richest 10%
used to earn seven times more than the poorest 10% in the OECD, this ratio is
now around nine and a half times.
In the United
States, for example, the share of the top 1% has almost doubled from about 11%
to 20% and almost half of all income growth accrued to this group.
have not followed suit. Over the last 30 years median incomes in the OECD
increased a third less than the average income of the richest 10%.
wealth is even more pronounced: the top 10% holds half of total wealth while
the bottom 40% holds only 3%.
inequalities translate into social divides, with compounded effects: by the age
of 15 disadvantaged pupils in the OECD have fallen on average two-and-a-half
years behind their more affluent peers.
these factors have driven down trust: In the OECD only 43% of citizens trust their
is also not enough progress tackling gender divides: pay gap is still 14% in
OECD, and women spend double the amount of time in unpaid work.
The ILO estimates that globally 606 million women, or 41% of those currently inactive, are outside the labour market because of their unpaid care responsibilities.
Our growth model has left people behind but also created an environmental emergency
started to rise again, reaching unprecedented levels in 2018. We are not on
track to reduce warming to below 1.5 degrees, our kids are striking, the Amazon
is burning, our oceans are being suffocated by plastics.
By the middle of
the century, there will be more plastic than fish in the oceans, by weight.
that a million plant and animal species face extinction while the health and
security of billions of people are at risk.
By 2025 half of
the world’s population will be living in water-stressed areas.
The OECD has estimated that outdoor air pollution could cause 6 to 9 million premature deaths a year by 2060.
There is also anxiety around megatrends like digitalisation,
which could deepen inequalities
The OECD estimates that around 14% of
jobs are at high risk of automation, and another 32% will be changed
significantly, with the low-skilled and low-paid most at risk.
Yet low skills workers are, on average,
40 percentage points less likely than high-skilled adults to participate in
Middle-skill occupations are disappearing
fast. On average in 21 OECD countries
with data, the years between 1990 and 2010 saw middle-skill occupations losing
8% employment share.
We are also seeing emergence of non-
standard jobs, particularly in the platform economy. These workers are up to
50% less likely to get income support when out of work.
It’s not just about social costs, there
are also anxieties around concentration at the top: only 250 firms globally
generate 70% of R&D and patents, and 44% of trademarks. All too often, they
are also not paying their fair share of tax.
We need to reshape
the foundations of multilateralism and put people at the centre
The OECD is
advocating people-centred growth (we have the Policy Framework for Action on
IG, Gender Strategy, PISA, Well-Being Framework, SDG Action Plan &
Governance Hub) and we have NAEC.
We have the Going
Digital Project & AI Principles.
We are also creating
synergies between climate action and well-being (quality jobs, health, skills)
We are tackling
tax evasion and avoidance, with BEPS and Automatic Exchange of Information (95
billion euros in additional revenues).
Ministerial Panel at the OECD International Workshop “Putting Well-Being Metrics into Policy Action”. The panel featured interventions from Grant Robertson, Minister of Finance, New Zealand (via video); Ohood Al Roumi, Minister for Happiness and Well-Being, United Arab Emirates; Saila Ruuth, State Secretary, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Finland; Maria Amalia Revelo Raventos, Minister for Tourism, Costa Rica; Derek Mackay, Cabinet Secretary for Finance, Economy and Fair Work, Scotland.
Ohood Al Roumi, State Secretary Saila Ruuth, Minister Maria Revelo, Cabinet
Secretary Derek Mackay, Ladies and Gentlemen, distinguished guests,
It is my pleasure to introduce you to this session, where we will hear the ministerial perspective on: what policy problems well-being helps to solve.
The main question
we want to answer in this session is how a well-being approach can change our
policy decisions and our roles as policymakers. What difference does it make?
According to OECD
work, a well-being framework that considers many dimensions and their
linkages, provides a better understanding on how to achieve a more inclusive
and sustainable growth. It allows us to look better at trade-offs and synergies
of different policy packages, and avoid silo decisions.
Our Framework for Policy Action on Inclusive
Growth, for example, stresses that:
When considering different policies, we should assess their unintended consequences. For example, policies aimed at growth should not negatively impact the environment, or vice-versa. Having well-being as a clar objective could help to better evaluate the options at hand and focus action around synergies.
Addressing inequalities in well-being outcomes requires a coherent and integrated policy approach mobilising the whole of government, as inequalities tend to be correlated across different dimensions and a range of policies contribute to them.
To give another
example, our recent study on Accelerating
Climate Action: Refocusing Policies through a Well-being Lens is about bringing
a well being approach to climate change actions.
This can allow us
to assess better the impact on people of different policies and improve
decision-making. If we focus on people’s well being, it may be possible to
re-build the public transport system in a different manner, avoiding urban
sprawl and car congestion, for example. We can rebalance different objectives
related to jobs, to sustainability, and to adaptation.
example: our approach to digitalisation. This year’s How’s Life in the Digital Age? looked at the risks and
opportunities of digital technologies through a well-being lens.
Digitalisation can connect people with more information, more consumer choices, more job oppprtunities and new ways of working, and can even change how people use public services.
But digitalisation has also created new security, privacy and ethical risks as well as vulnerabilities for well-being. On average across OECD countries, for example, around 8% of boys and 12% of girls aged 15 report having been cyberbullied. And OECD analysis has revealed an alarming gender divide in digital skills and opportunities, mostly rooted in negative stereotypes imposed from an early age about women and technology.
We also expect 14% of jobs to be at high risk of automation, and another 32% will change significantly. Many of the poorest workers lack the skills to navigate these changes successfully, and we need to focus our efforts on them.
Ensuring that the
digital transformation improves people’s lives requires us to bridge digital
divides in skills and opportunities and also address risks for security,
privacy and ethics.
revolution calls for new skills in the work place, but also for daily life. This
includes being able to distinguish between high and low-quality information,
trustworthy and untrustworthy actors, and to guard against digital addiction
and harassment. The OECD is leading the way with tools like the policy
framework and the PISA Global Competences approach. But we need to do more.
We need systematic mapping out of the risks and opportunities and a deeper understanding of the trade-offs we must manage.
So we should ask
ourselves today: what prevents well-being from being part of mainstream economics
and politics? Why isn’t a well-being
approach on the curriculum in every School of Government? What needs to change
in the way governements operate to put well-being at the centre of
I have a very
distinguished line-up of speakers here with me on stage to help answer these
Ohood Al Roumi, the Minister for
Happiness and Well-being in the United Arab Emirates.
State Secretary to the Minister of
Social Affairs and Health in Finland, Saila Ruuth.
Maria Revelo, the Minister for Tourism
in Costa Rica. And,
The Cabinet Secretary for Finance,
Economy and Fair Work in Scotland, Derek Mackay.
Unfortunately, the New Zealand Minister of Finance, Grant Robertson, couldn’t be with us today in person as planned. However, he has instead prepared this short video for us.
Watch the full moderated panel including the video intervention by Grant Robertson, New Zealand Minister of Finance, at this link .
Dear Ministers, Ambassadors,
Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,
I would like to commend Pathfinders
for their work accelerating action to implement the SDG16 targets on peace,
justice and inclusion (SDG16+).
Lack of access to justice brings huge
human and social costs as it cuts across many areas of life, contributing to
increasing inequalities and leaving people behind.
Certain groups are particularly
affected and face additional legal hardship, and it is key to focus efforts on
Those include children and youth, women,
victims of violence and discrimination, people with disabilities, and indigenous
We can see the positive impact of
justice interventions when they target these groups. For example, in Ecuador,
clients of legal aid clinics, mostly poor women and their children, reported a
positive change in their lives after having benefited from legal aid services: 83%
reported that their living situation was better, 77% said they felt safer and
66% indicated that their self-esteem had improved.[i]
The group that I want to focus on today,
Inclusive and people-centred justice
systems, must take into account the specific needs of children. This requires at least three levels of
First, we need to invest in data and evidence to measure and monitor access
to justice. The OECD, jointly with the Open Society Justice Initiative, has
designed a Legal Needs Survey and Access
to Justice Guide, to inform policy design. It helps to understand what people
need when they seek justice, the obstacles they face, and the kind of justice
they receive. We are now working to adapt it to be suitable to map children’s
needs and experiences.
Second, we need a
regular dialogue and a compendium of good practices on what works and has
delivered. This is
why we have created the platform Global Roundtables on Equal Access to
developed a set of principles to help countries to ensure that their justice
systems and services respond to the needs of people and advance the
child-friendly justice agenda.
Finally, we need to
strengthen the business case for access to justice for children by demonstrating
the costs of lack of justice as well as the benefits of specific justice
interventions. The OECD’s White Paper on the Business Case on Access to Justice
shows that unmet legal needs can cost countries up to 3% of GDP, but we need to
better understand how the children’s agenda fits into this, as their needs in
terms of access to justice are complex and cross-cutting.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Thank you for your attention. The OECD
stands ready to support the implementation of this agenda and we look forward
to working with countries and our global partners to continue building
peaceful, just and inclusive societies and make justice a reality for all by
OECD White Paper on Building a Business Case for Access to Justice
Dear Mayors, Distinguished guests,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
I am delighted to join you for the 2nd
Local and Regional Governments Forum on the 2030 Agenda. Thanks to UN DESA,
UN-Habitat, Local 2030, and the Global Task Force of Local and Regional
Governments for convening this important event on “Connecting Global Ambition
and Local Action” to achieve the SDGs.
Let’s begin by recalling that no
country is on track for achieving all 17 Goals, and in developing countries
alone the average annual funding gap for the SDGs amounts to 2.5 trillion US
In the face of this challenge, the
OECD established an Action Plan on the SDGs to support and guide
Members, Partner countries, and the international community with the
implementation of the SDGs.
One fact that stands out loud and
clear is that we cannot do this without sub-national governments. The OECD
estimates that at least 100 of the 169 targets underlying the 17 SDGs will not
be reached without proper engagement and coordination with local and regional
Cities are particularly critical. We
know that urbanisation continues to grow all over the world, with cities
accounting for over 80% of global GDP today and projected to house 70% of the
global population by 2050.[ii]
This makes cities hotspots for inequalities and environmental stresses. Income
inequality – which has been rising in the last decades – is higher, on average,
in cities than in their respective countries.
The health implications of inequalities in cities is striking: while the richest 40% of urban dwellers are likely to reach the age of 70 or more, the poorest struggle to reach 55 years.[iii]
Cities are also major polluters,
being responsible for over two-thirds of energy consumption and more than 70%
of CO2 emissions globally. The OECD has estimated that outdoor air pollution
could cause 6 to 9 million premature deaths a year by 2060, with cities
particularly hard hit. And of course, many cities are on the front line of
climate change. In fact, the data shows that 89% of cities – home to over 2
billion people – are located in areas that are highly vulnerable to economic
losses from natural disasters. [iv]
But cities also play a huge role in determining the response to these multiple challenges. Data from the OECD World Observatory on Subnational Government Finance and Investment shows that subnational governments are responsible for almost 60% of total public investment in the OECD, and for almost 40% worldwide. They are also responsible for 64% of environment and climate-related public investment.
For all these reasons, the OECD
launched last year at the High Level Political Forum in New York a Programme
on “A Territorial Approach to SDGs”, which aims to support cities and
regions to develop, implement and monitor strategies to overcome these
challenges and deliver on all of the SDGs.
We are currently monitoring ‘pilot’
cities and regions in Denmark, Japan, Argentina, Russia, Belgium, Germany,
Iceland, Norway, and Brazil that are already using this Territorial Approach to
guide their policy actions.
Following the impressive work that these regions and cities are conducting, we have identified four main findings:
we clearly see that the SDGs provide a framework that helps cities and
regions to address local issues. We see it in Kitakyushu for instance – the
city is leaning on the SDGs related to clean energy (SDG7) and climate action
(SDG13) to rethink its environmental action. It is working on eco-industry
development and offshore wind power generation as new avenues to improve the
local environmental footprint and create jobs.
cities and regions are not just using SDGs to track progress and measure
performance, but also to guide decision-making, design local development
plans, allocate their budgets, and shape policies and strategies. This is
the case for instance in the Belgian region of Flanders and in the city of
Bonn. Its Municipal Council adopted earlier this year
the city’s first sustainability strategy that is building on the SDGs to set
ambitious objectives in terms of energy-efficient building standards, clean and
affordable energy and low-carbon means of transport.
cities and regions value the SDGs as a vector to collaborate more and better
with the private sector. For instance, subnational authorities can
promote sustainable public procurement to promote greener practices in the
private sector, or de-risk private investments for SDG-related solutions. This
is already the case in the country of Viken, Norway and the province of Cordoba
in Argentina, for example.
The fourth and last finding I
would like to highlight is that, while cities and regions are already using
existing local or national indicators to measure their progress vis-à-vis the
SDGs, an internationally-comparable and localised indicator framework is
To fill this important gap, we are
developing an OECD Localised Indicator Framework for SDGs, to be launched at
the 10th World Urban Forum in Abu Dhabi in 2020, that will allow
over 600 regions and 650 cities in OECD and partner countries to measure their
progress on the SDGs at the local level, and to learn where they stand
vis-à-vis their peers.
The framework will build on the
OECD’s unique Regional and Metropolitan databases as well as on UN statistics,
the Gallup World Poll, the Global Human Settlement population grids and more,
to consolidate over 100 indicators.
Ladies and gentlemen,
the 2030 Agenda will not happen
without cities and regions. The SDGs offer cities and regions and a dynamic and
global opportunity to step up their efforts, and put people at the centre.
The OECD is committing to continue
playing a leading role, working at the international, the national, the
regional, the sub-regional and the local level. Which is why I call on all of
you to join us at the 2nd OECD Roundtable of Cities and Regions
for the SDGs on 9 December in Bonn to advance this vital work together.
Dear Ministers, Esteemed Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen,
On behalf of the Permanent
Missions of the Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania and the OECD, I am very
pleased to welcome you to this event on Placing
Well-being at the Heart of Climate Policy.
The UN SG has convened
this climate summit with the objective of boosting ambition and accelerating
climate action because we are still not doing enough.
To achieve either a 1.5°C
or below 2°C goal, the IPCC assesses that global CO2 emissions will need to
fall by 20-45% by 2030 relative to 2010.
Yet energy-related CO2
emissions rose by an estimated 1.7% in 2018, driven by rapid increases in
This is very concerning,
and is an alarm bell for increased action, which is sounding alongside the demands
of our young people, who are striking in the streets, and leading the first UN
Youth Summit .
I add my voice to theirs:
we need radical action, and we need it fast. We have seen some steps in the
right directions in the lead-up to the Summit, with some countries and actors
making important efforts to accelerate action. For example:
— Last month France and the UK pledged to double their contributions to
the Green Climate Fund, joining a similar pledge last year from Germany and
— The private
sector is also making progress, with 21 companies with a combined market
capitalisation of over USD 1.3 trillion committing to step up efforts to cut
emissions from their operations in line with limiting gobal temperature rise to
-The OECD is playing its part to drive this action to be faster and more ambitious. And in line with the our inclusive growth initiative and productivity-inclusiveness nexus, we are advancing climate actions that are more people-centric, that exploit synergies to improve people’s lives and the health of our planet and its rich biodiversity.
We just launched a report Accelerating Climate Action: Refocusing Policies Through a Well-Being
Lens which applies a well-being persepective to identify synergies and
trade-offs between climate action and well-being goals.
The aim of this event is
to explore how placing people’s well-being at the centre of decision making can
increase political and social support for more ambitious mitigation action.
To take us forward, I would like to call on the OECD Secretary-General, Angel Gurría, to tell us more about this study and share his vision for solutions to the climate emergency, that also foster well-being and inclusion.
Dear Ministers, Ladies and Gentlemen, Let me start by thanking the Czech Republic, Lithuania, and Latvia for co-hosting this important event. We have gathered at a decisive moment. Across the globe, July 2019 was the hottest month ever recorded, and this builds on a worrying trend: 9 out of the 10 hottest months of July have happened since 2005.[i] With an increase in global temperature of around 1 degree Celsius relative to pre-industrial levels, we are now witnessing a plethora of extreme weather events and damaging threats to unique ecosystems. Land degradation and deforestation are exacerbating this effect and put global food security at risk, as the latest IPCC report warns. All of this comes at a time when we are already facing the planet’s sixth mass extinction of biodiversity. Our planet is in crisis! Moreover, at a time when we urgently need co-ordinated and far-sighted action to safeguard our collective future, the willingness and ability to act for the common good is in short supply. Progress is being made, but it is not enough Some countries show that ambitious climate action is possible. Costa Rica is on track to become the world’s first carbon-neutral nation. Sweden will be carbon neutral by 2050. New Zealand has banned new permits for offshore oil and gas exploration. Norway is dropping fossil fuel investments from its national pension fund, the world’s biggest wealth fund, to redirect 20 billion US dollars towards renewables.[ii] Twelve countries have already communicated their long-term low-emissions development strategies to the UNFCCC. Although these steps are important, they are not enough. Overall global emissions and investments are still going in the wrong direction. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions are growing at an alarming pace. The emissions pathways set out by national governments will take us to a world that will be around 3 degrees (Celsius) warmer by 2100. Furthermore, although climate change was historically caused by industrialised nations, emerging economies are now also major contributors to the problem, and the impact and consequences are strongly felt across the globe. Wealthier countries will need to move faster and further; but all countries will need to contribute to achieving zero net carbon dioxide emissions globally in the second half of the century. We need to do more, we need to do it better, and, most importantly, we need to do it faster.
Accelerating Climate Action: Refocusing Policies through a Well-Being Lens Accelerating climate mitigation action to achieve the Paris goals is vital to our collective well-being. But we need to rethink our approach. In many cases, climate mitigation raises concerns such as the effect of carbon prices on affordability of energy, and the impact of climate policies on jobs. It is also important to remember that those most at risk from these challenges are developing countries and the world’s most vulnerable populations. These concerns may limit policy action. But we must also remember that our climate-change inducing habits can also take a major toll on well-being.
Take air pollution from coal plants, for example: in 2013, nearly 23,000 premature deaths in the European Union could be attributed to coal plants. That’s almost equivalent to the number of fatalities in road-traffic accidents (26 000)! In another recent study, we calculated the tremendous burden of ambient air pollution: this cost was estimated at around 3.2 million deaths and 5.1 trillion US dollars in BRIICS and OECD countries in 2015. We need to leverage synergies between mitigation policy and other well-being goals. We also must anticipate, manage, and minimise trade-offs that could otherwise block progress.
The OECD’s recent report on Accelerating Climate Action: Refocusing Policies through a Well-Being Lens, identifies and addresses three key actions to move forward: First, we must refocus our climate policies through a well-being lens. Placing people’s well-being at the centre of decision-making helps increase the political and social support for more ambitious mitigation action, and also overcome the barriers to change. The “well-being lens” put forward by the report takes into consideration the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) when analysing a range of economic sectors. Adopting this approach can lead to different policy perspectives on climate mitigation in five economic sectors, those that are responsible for more than 60 percent of global emissions: electricity, heavy industry, residential, surface transport, and agriculture.
In the transport sector, for example, the well-being approach would prioritise accessibility, and not only physical movement, which too often leads to car-dominated cities, congestion, and air pollution. Moreover, it would ensure that people could easily access jobs, services, and amenities using sustainable transport modes, such as walking, cycling, public transport, and even new modes of transport.
Second, we must rethink societal goals. The OECD recognises that promoting better policies for better lives requires a rethinking of societal goals. It means prioritising improvements in people’s well-being that include – and go beyond – traditional economic activity indicators such as GDP. We must ensure that policy decisions consider multiple well-being objectives – including climate – and do not focus on single goals in isolation. This means defining our goals by how healthy we are; the quality of our air, our water and the nature of our societies, alongside material dimensions such as jobs and income. Third, we must reframe our measurement system. We need to take a more comprehensive set of indicators that can help monitor and set criteria to ensure progress on multiple policy priorities, while making synergies and trade-offs between them visible. For example, Transport for London is using multiple accessibility indicators to guide new development and leverage private investment in infrastructure improvements. These indicators describe the extent to which citizens are able to access the transport system and travel between locations to access jobs and services. This is also why the OECD is supporting initiatives launched today at this UN Climate Summit. In particular, we are supporting the Leadership for Urban Climate Investment initiative (LUCI), by developing a tool to measure and track subnational climate finance.
Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, The climate action goals that were agreed upon in 2015 in Paris, while challenging and ambitious, are also achievable. But we are lagging behind on what needs to be done. We must accelerate action, for the good of our planet, our well-being today, and for the good of future generations. I very much hope that the agenda of putting people at the centre of climate action can help governments take the necessary steps to save our planet. The OECD is here to help. Let us not lose hope. You can count on the OECD! Thank you, and I look forward to the fruitful discussions this afternoon.
 CAN et al., 2016  Roy, R. and N. Braathen (2017), “The Rising Cost of Ambient Air Pollution thus far in the 21st Century: Results from the BRIICS and the OECD Countries”, OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 124, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/d1b2b844-en.
Angel for presenting the key messages of the new report, highlighting the potential
of a shift in perspective, of a new people-centred narrative, in accelerating
climate mitigation actions.
I am now
delighted to introduce our panel:
H.E. Mr. Linas Linkevicius is the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania
H.E. Mr. Richard Brabec is the Minister of the Environment of the Czech Republic
H.E. Mr. Juris Pūce, Minister for Environmental Protection and Regional Development, Latvia
Ms. Maimunah Mohd Sharif, Executive Director of UN-Habitat, the United Nations Human Settlements Programme
Ms. Thembi Nkadimeng, Mayor of Polokwane and President of the South Africa Local Government Association, who will give us her perspective on the relevance of these issues at the sub-national level
Mr. Michael Liebreich, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Liebreich Associates, who will share his views in light of his wide expertise, which includes environmental, energy, infrastructure, gender, and finance amongst others.
To H.E. Mr. Linkevicius, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Lithuania:
Lithuania faces two
simultaneous challenges. On the one hand, the energy mix is dominated by – largely
imported – fossil fuels; on the other, inequality remains high relative to most
Applying a well-being lens, how can the need to decarbonise the energy mix be reconciled with political pressures to take into account labour market conditions? What are the opportunities for responding to these issues in an integrated manner?
To H.E. Mr. Richard Brabec, Minister of the Environment, Czech Republic:
In the Czech Republic, a steady decrease in industrial
energy consumption has contributed to a 60% cut in energy-related GHG
emissions. Still, the Czech Republic remains one of the most energy-intensive
economies in the OECD, largely due to heavy industry.
How could application of the well-being approach put forward by the OECD support efforts to reduce GHG emissions from the industrial sector while ensuring continued employment as well as not impoverishing communities?
To H.E. Mr. Juris Pūce, Minister for Environmental Protection and Regional Development, Latvia:
In Latvia, we have seen that with an increase in per
capita income, a growing share of the population has relocated from city
centres to the suburbs where they can buy larger homes, resulting in urban
sprawl, and a rapid increase in the number of private vehicles.
Considering the government’s commitment to limit GHG emissions by, among other “developing an environmentally friendly transport system ”, how can Latvia overcome the challenge of having to manage emissions from the transport sector while at the same time taking broader well-being and development considerations into account?
To Ms. Thembi Nkadimeng, Mayor of Polokwane and President of the South Africa Local Government Association:
Polokwane has a reputation for being one of the
greenest municipalities in South Africa, as well as being one of the fastest growing.
Polokwane is managing urban sprawl
using densification policies that have the potential to reduce GHG emissions and
bring other benefits, e.g. public transport and less pollution. But these
benefits depend on how the city takes into account the well-being implications
of mitigation policies not only at the city-level, but also at the
neighbourhood level and in individual dwellings (e.g., homes, apartments,
How has the city government integrated its policies towards the residential sector with its aims of improving and scaling up public transport in the city?
To Mr. Michael Liebreich, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Liebreich Associates:
Decarbonisation of the electricity
sector has become a policy priority. Still, the sector is off-track to meet
global mitigation goals.
How can we accelerate the decarbonisation of the energy sector while bringing in well-being benefits?
To Ms. Maimunah Mohd Sharif, Executive Director of UN-Habitat, the United Nations Human Settlements Programme:
The UN adopted in 2016 the New Urban Agenda, which outlines that cities and human settlements should be the places where all inhabitants enjoy equal rights and opportunities in just, healthy, affordable and sustainable areas. Based on UN-Habitat’s experience in defining this Agenda, what are the opportunities for a focus on well-being to further advance progress on mitigation in urban contexts?
Thank you for those insights into the breadth of opportunities related to applying the well-being approach to accelerating climate action.
Before opening the floor
to questions from the audience, I would like to invite Ms. Helena Molin Valdés,
Head of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition Secretariat of the United Nations
Environment Programme, to contribute to the discussion from an international
Helena, what are your
thoughts on how broader well-being considerations could lead to climate
Thanks to our panel and to
all of you for a very interesting discussion. There is a lot of value in shifting
our perspective on well-being and climate action, and I look forward to the
release of the second part of this report, which puts forward detailed policy
recommendations for each sector, in early 2020.
I would like extend
special thanks to the Czech Republic, Latvia and Lithuania for co-hosting this
event. And I look forward to working together to ensure an acceleration to
climate action that fosters well-being and safeguards the needs
of future generations.
Excellencies, ladies and
gentlemen, thank you for joining us.
The 45% reduction for a 1.5°C goal assumes little overshoot of CO2 emissions
and therefore limited
requirement for atmospheric CO2 removal. The 20%
figure corresponds to a 66% chance of keeping the